Backups:

Backup a single file/directory
Backup multiple files/directories
Backup an inclusion list
Backup a single file/directory with compression
Backup an entire system with exclusions

Verifies & Listings:

Listing of files on an archive
Level 1 Verification on an archive
Level 2 Verification (Byte-by-Byte) on an archive

Restores:

Restore a directory to its original place on the hard drive
Restore a directory to a relative directory on the hard drive
Restore a directory with 'white space''

Request a command-line example that is not listed

Flag option explanations:

Table 1. Summary of Verification and Listing Functions
Table 2. Summary of Restore Options Available
Table 3. Summary of Primary Backup Command-line Options
Table 4. Summary of Secondary Backup Command-line Options

 

Command Example 1:
Backup a single file/directory

# cd /
# lone-tar Cvfb /dev/st0 20 ./bin

Backup Device → /dev/st0
Block Factor → 20
Directory being backed up → /bin

C create an archive using no compression
v display files being backed up on the screen but keep NO catalog
f use the device which is named /dev/st0
b block size of 20 for the media

As you can see, the C and v has no argument, while the f, b flags do. Notice there is no flag for the directory you want backed up. Just place whatever files or directories you wish to backup after all the proper flags and arguments.

 

Command Example 2:
Backup multiple files/directories

# cd /
# lone-tar Cvfb /dev/rStp0 20 ./bin ./var/spool ./usr2
Backup Device → /dev/rStp0
Block Factor → 20
Directories being backed up → /bin & /var/spool & /usr2
 
C create an archive using no compression
v display files being backed up on the screen but keep NO catalog
f use the device which is named /dev/rStp0
b block size of 20 for the media

The only difference with this example and example 1 is the amount of directories being backed up.

 

Command Example 3:
Backup an inclusion list

# cd /
# lone-tar CvfbF /dev/rcd0 120 ./tmp/Backup.list
Backup Device → /dev/rcd0
Block Factor → 120
Inclusion List → /tmp/Backup.list
 
C create an archive using no compression
v display files being backed up on the screen but keep NO catalog
f use the device which is named /dev/rcd0
b block size of 120 for the media
F backup all files contained in an inclusion list

Example Contents of the inclusion list /tmp/Backup.list

./usr/backups
./u2/database/user/dan
./usr
./tmp/roster.file

Important Notes on Command Example 3:

Anytime you make an inclusion list, please begin every entry with a ’./’

Command Example 4:
Backup a single file/directory with compression

# cd /
# lone-tar Pvfbk /dev/st0 120 2000000 ./bin

Backup Device → /dev/st0
Block Factor → 120
Directory being backed up → /bin
 

P create an archive using software compression
v display files being backed up on the screen but keep NO catalog
f use the device which is named /dev/st0
b block size of 20 for the media
k set the total size of the backup archive (in example size = 2GB) uses blocks

Important Notes on Command Example 4:

When using the 'P' flag, you MUST use the 'k' flag to specify a file size

Command Example 5:
Backup an entire system with exclusions

# cd /
# lone-tar MvfbE /dev/st0 120 ./usr2
Backup Device → /dev/st0
Block Factor → 120
Directory being backed up → /
 
M create a Master Backup Archive
v display files being backed up on the screen but keep NO catalog
f use the device which is named /dev/st0
b block size of 20 for the media
E exclude a file or directory from a backup

So command 5 does a full system backup, but excludes the directory '/usr2'.
You may use as many 'E' flags as much as you want in one command to match the needed exclusions. Or use the 'X' flag to exclude an inclusion list of files and directories.

 

Command Example 6:
Listing of files on an archive 

# lone-tar tvfb /dev/st0 20

t lists files on a LONE-TAR archive
v display files being backed up on the screen but keep NO catalog
f use the device which is named /dev/st0
b block size of 20 for the media

Watch and see the tape fly with a list of its contents. The t is mnemonic for table-of-contents.

 

Command Example 7:
Level 1 Verification on an archive

# lone-tar Tvfb /dev/st0 20
T verify files on a LONE-TAR archive using a Level 1 Verification Process
v display files being backed up on the screen but keep NO catalog
f use the device which is named /dev/st0
b block size of 20 for the media
 

Command Example 8:
Level 2 Verification (Byte-by-Byte) on an archive

# lone-tar TTvfb /dev/st0 20

TT verify files on a LONE-TAR archive using a Level 2 Verification Process
v display files being backed up on the screen but keep NO catalog
f use the device which is named /dev/st0
b block size of 20 for the media

This is the verification LONE-TAR uses with every backup from the Menu or from one of our scripts. This is the most recommended way to verify files and is the most used.

 

Command Example 9:
Restore a directory to its original place on the hard drive

# cd /
# lone-tar xvfb /dev/st0 20 ./usr/brad/

x restore files from LONE-TAR archive
v display files being backed up on the screen but keep NO catalog
f use the device which is named /dev/st0
b block size of 20 for the media

This command will restore all the contents of '/usr/brad' to its original place on the hard drive.

Important Notes on Command Example 9:

Any time you are doing a restore of a directory and all its sub-contents, please use a trailing '/' (forward slash) at the end of the entry.
Otherwise you will just restore the directory name and nothing else.

Command Example 10:
Restore a directory to a relative directory on the hard drive

# cd /
# lone-tar xvfb /dev/st0 20 -zWHERE=/tmp/brad ./usr/brad/

x restore files from LONE-TAR archive
v display files being backed up on the screen but keep NO catalog
f use the device which is named /dev/st0
b block size of 20 for the media
-zWHERE flag to tell LONE-TAR where to restore files/directories to

This command will restore all the contents of '/usr/brad' to '/tmp/brad/usr/brad' on the hard drive.

Important Notes on Command Example 10:

Any time you are doing a restore of a directory and all its sub-contents, please use a trailing '/' (forward slash) at the end of the entry.
Otherwise you will just restore the directory name and nothing else.

If using 'white space' in your file name to restore, please use " " (double quotes)

Command Example 11:
Restore a directory with 'white space'

# cd /
# lone-tar xvfb /dev/st0 20 "./usr/brad/Accounting Files and Data/"
x restore files from LONE-TAR archive
v display files being backed up on the screen but keep NO catalog
f use the device which is named /dev/st0
b block size of 20 for the media

This command will restore all the contents of '/usr/brad/Accounting Files and Data' to its original place on the hard drive.

Important Notes on Command Example 11:

Any time you are doing a restore of a directory and all its sub-contents, please use a trailing '/' (forward slash) at the end of the entry.
Otherwise you will just restore the directory name and nothing else.

If using 'white space' in your file name to restore, please use " " (double quotes)

Command Example ?:
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Table 1. Summary of Verification and Listing Functions

Verify or List Function Option
Catalog file - create carbon copy of screen output -V
Exclude file or directory from Bit-level-verification -E xx
Exclude a list of files or directories from Bit-level-verification -X xx
List files on LONE-TAR backup archive -t
Verify files on LONE-TAR backup archive (Level 1 Verification) -T
Verify files on LONE-TAR backup archive (Level 2 Verification) Byte-by-Byte Verification **Recommended** -TT

 

Table 2. Summary of Restore Options Available

Restore Capability Desired Option
Catalog file - create carbon copy of screen output -V
Exclude file or directory from being restored on the command-line -E xx
Exclude a list of files or directories from being restored -X xx
Flat file restore - preserve ONLY the filename part of the full path -zFLAT
Relative Restore; Place files to a different directory other than original spot on the hard drive
xx = Your Directory Name
-zWHERE=xx
Interactive restore (approve or disapprove each file) -w
Interactive Non-Destructive restore (same as above but only files that do not exist) -Nw
Non-Destructive restore (restore only files not already on the system) -N
Restore files modified after a specified date -zDATE
Restore files modified on or before a specified date -zDATEBEFORE
Restore files - needed on any restore -x
Restore files placed in a list -F xx
Symbolic link - restore the contents of the symbolic link if it already exists -h
Strip leading slash from pathname before restoring -A
Update files on hard disk with newer files on tape -U

 

Table 3. Summary of Primary Backup Command-line Options

Backup Functions Option
Backup with no compression -C
Backup with compression -P
Backup with compression on seeking device -nc
Incremental backup -I
Master backup -M



Table 4. Summary of Secondary Backup Command-line Options

Backup Modifiers Option
Add files to the end of a seeking device -r
Backup files modified after a given date -zDATE=xx
Backup a raw device file -zDEV=xx
Backup virtual files using virtual file processing. Use environment variable VIRUTAL_LIST
Catalog file creation - create carbon copy of backup screen output -V
Change group number of files -g
Compression - compress executable files also -Z
Compression - minimum size file to compress -L xx
Device block size -b xx
Device capacity, accepts MB, GB, TB (with a limit of 2TB) -k xx
Device name (name of backup device) -f xx
Device has seeking ability -n
Exclude a file or directory from the backup -E xx
Exclude a list of files or directories from the backup -X xx
File List - backup ALL files contained in this file list -F xx
Linked files - report any unresolved links encountered during backup -l
Locking - use Enforced File Locking -RR
Locking - use Unenforced File Locking -R
Locking - use No File Locking with Master or Incremental Backups -RRR
Preserve file access times -a
Prevent a file from being split across volumes -e
Restart a backup on a given file -zRESTART=xx
Speed option using double buffering (up to 100% faster) -S
Starting directory -zWHERE=xx
Symbolic link - backup its contents (not the link info) -h